Donald Shoup, Distinguished Research Professor in the Department of Urban Planning at UCLA, on parking: “Just because the driver doesn’t pay for parking doesn’t mean the cost goes away. A little bit of every daily transaction has a little bit shaved off to pay for parking. It’s the single biggest land use in any city.”
Also, a Transportation Alternatives study compares travel habits of two NYC neighborhoods. It finds off-street parking availability dramatically increases auto mode share even when all other neighborhood variables would indicate higher transit use. (Link to PDF here)
Indicators such as income, car ownership, density, government employment, and the difference between drive and transit times to the central business district (CBD) predict a higher share of auto commuting by Park Slope residents. Yet Jackson Heights residents are 45% more likely to drive to work in the Manhattan CBD and 28% more likely to commute by car in general.